Frost Er

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Sep 01, 2011  Frost is about a girl named Leena who, after much convincing, moves into Frost house for her senior year at Barcroft, a boarding school she had been attending since first year (grade 9, I'm assuming).

Snow frosted fire tower on a mountain summit showing wind direction. Frost is the coating or deposit of that may form in air in cold conditions, usually overnight. In, it most commonly appears as fragile white crystals or frozen drops near the ground, but in cold climates, it occurs in a greater variety of forms.

Frost is composed of delicate, branched patterns of that formed as the result of process development. The formation of frost is an indication that the air temperature has fallen below the of water, and plants that have evolved in warmer climates are known to suffer damage when the temperature falls low enough to freeze the water in the that make up the plant. The tissue damage resulting from this process is known as 'frost damage'. In those regions where frost damage is known to affect their crops often invest in substantial means to protect their crops from such damage. Contents • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Introduction [ ] Frost forms when the temperature of a solid surface in the open cools to below the freezing point of water and for the most clearly crystalline forms of frost in particular, below the in still air. In most temperate countries such temperatures usually are the result of heat loss by radiation at night, so those types of frost sometimes are called radiation frost. Of frost include crystalline from of from air of low humidity, in humid conditions, on glass surfaces, from cold wind over cold surfaces, without visible ice at low temperatures and very low humidity, and under supercooled wet conditions.

The size of frost crystals varies depending on the time they have been building up and the amount of water vapor available. Frost crystals may be clear or, but, like snow, a mass of frost crystals will scatter light in all directions, so that a coating of frost appears white. Formation [ ].

Frost in the,. Because of its location in an called, there exists a daily freeze-and-thaw cycle, sometimes described as 'summer every day and winter every night.' If a solid surface is chilled below the of the surrounding humid air and the surface itself is colder than freezing, ice will form on it. If the water deposits as a liquid that then freezes, it forms a coating that may look glassy, opaque, or crystalline, depending on its. Depending on context, that process also may be called. The ice it produces differs in some ways from crystalline frost, which consists of spicules of that typically project from the solid surface on which they grow. The main difference between the ice coatings and frost spicules arises from the fact that the crystalline spicules grow directly from of water vapour from air, and desublimation is not a factor in icing of freezing surfaces.

For desublimation to proceed the surface must be below the of the air, meaning that it is sufficiently cold for ice to form without passing through the. The air must be humid, but not sufficiently humid to permit the condensation of liquid water, or icing will result instead of desublimation. The size of the depends largely on the temperature, the amount of available, and how long they have been growing undisturbed. As a rule, except in conditions where droplets are present in the air, frost will form only if the deposition surface is colder than the surrounding air.

For instance frost may be observed around cracks in cold wooden sidewalks when humid air escapes from the warmer ground beneath. Other objects on which frost commonly forms are those with low or high, such as blackened metals; hence the accumulation of frost on the heads of rusty nails. The apparently erratic occurrence of frost in adjacent localities is due partly to differences of elevation, the lower areas becoming colder on calm nights. Where static air settles above an area of ground in the absence of wind, the and specific heat of the ground strongly influence the temperature that the trapped air attains. Types [ ] Hoar frost [ ]. Depth hoar, with (left) and (right) Hoar frost (also hoarfrost, radiation frost, or pruina) refers to white deposited on the ground or loosely attached to exposed objects, such as wires or leaves. They form on cold, clear nights when conditions are such that heat radiates out to the open air faster than it can be replaced from nearby sources, such as wind or warm objects.

Under suitable circumstances, objects cool to below the of the surrounding air, well below the freezing point of water. Such freezing may be promoted by effects such as flood frost or frost pocket. These occur when ground-level radiation loses cool air until it flows downhill and accumulates in pockets of very cold air in valleys and hollows.

Hoar frost may freeze in such low-lying cold air even when the air temperature a few feet above ground is well above freezing. The word hoar comes from an adjective that means 'showing signs of old age'. In this context, it refers to the frost that makes trees and bushes look like white hair. Hoar frost may have different names depending on where it forms: • Air hoar is a deposit of hoar frost on objects above the surface, such as tree branches, plant stems, and wires.

• Surface hoar refers to fern-like ice crystals directly deposited on snow, ice or already frozen surfaces. • Crevasse hoar consists of crystals that form in glacial crevasses where water vapour can accumulate under calm weather conditions. • refers to faceted crystals that have slowly grown large within cavities beneath the surface of banks of dry snow. Depth hoar crystals grow continuously at the expense of neighbouring smaller crystals, so typically are visibly stepped and have faceted hollows. When surface hoar covers sloping snowbanks, the layer of frost crystals may create an risk; when heavy layers of new snow cover the frosty surface, furry crystals standing out from the old snow hold off the falling flakes, forming a layer of voids that prevent the new snow layers from bonding strongly to the old snow beneath. Ideal conditions for hoarfrost to form on snow are cold clear nights, with very light, cold air currents conveying humidity at the right rate for growth of frost crystals. Wind that is too strong or warm destroys the furry crystals, and thereby may permit a stronger bond between the old and new snow layers.

However, if the winds are strong enough and cold enough to lay the crystals flat and dry, carpeting the snow with cold, loose crystals without removing or destroying them or letting them warm up and become sticky, then the frost interface between the snow layers may still present an avalanche danger, because the texture of the frost crystals differs from the snow texture and the dry crystals will not stick to fresh snow. Such conditions still prevent a strong bond between the snow layers. In very low temperatures where fluffy surface hoar crystals form without subsequently being covered with snow, strong winds may break them off, forming a dust of ice particles and blowing them over the surface. The ice dust then may form, as has been observed in parts of Antarctica, in a process similar to the formation of and similar structures. Hoar frost and also occurs in man-made environments such as in freezers or industrial facilities. If such cold spaces or the pipes serving them are not well insulated and are exposed to ambient, the moisture will freeze instantly depending on the.

The frost may coat pipes thickly, partly insulating them, but such inefficient insulation still is a source of heat loss. Advection frost [ ]. A flower with advection frost on the edges of its petals Advection frost (also called wind frost) refers to tiny ice spikes that form when very cold is blowing over tree branches, poles, and other surfaces. Google Translate For Pc. It looks like rimming on the edges of flowers and leaves and usually forms against the. It can occur at any hour, day or night. Window frost [ ] Window frost (also called fern frost or ice flowers) forms when a glass pane is exposed to very cold air on the outside and warmer, moderately moist air on the inside.

If the pane is not a good (for example, if it is a single pane window), water vapour condenses on the glass forming frost patterns. With very low temperatures outside, frost can appear on the bottom of the window even with double pane energy efficient windows because the air convection between two panes of glass ensures that the bottom part of the glazing unit is colder than the top part. On unheated motor vehicles the frost will usually form on the outside surface of the glass first. The glass surface influences the shape of crystals, so imperfections, scratches, or dust can modify the way ice.

The patterns in window frost form a with a greater than one but less than two. This is a consequence of the nucleation process being constrained to unfold in two dimensions, unlike a snowflake which is shaped by a similar process but forms in three dimensions and has a fractal dimension greater than two. If the indoor air is very, rather than moderately so, water will first in small droplets and then freeze into. Similar patterns of freezing may occur on other smooth vertical surfaces, but they seldom are as obvious or spectacular as on clear glass. Main articles: and Rime is a type of ice that occurs quickly, often under heavily humid and windy conditions. Technically speaking, it is not a type of frost, since usually water drops are involved, in contrast to the formation of hoar frost, in which water vapour desublimates slowly and directly.